मित्रों!

आप सबके लिए “आपका ब्लॉग” तैयार है। यहाँ आप अपनी किसी भी विधा की कृति (जैसे- अकविता, संस्मरण, मुक्तक, छन्दबद्धरचना, गीत, ग़ज़ल, शालीनचित्र, यात्रासंस्मरण आदि प्रकाशित कर सकते हैं।

बस आपको मुझे मेरे ई-मेल roopchandrashastri@gmail.com पर एक मेल करना होगा। मैं आपको “आपका ब्लॉग” पर लेखक के रूप में आमन्त्रित कर दूँगा। आप मेल स्वीकार कीजिए और अपनी अकविता, संस्मरण, मुक्तक, छन्दबद्धरचना, गीत, ग़ज़ल, शालीनचित्र, यात्रासंस्मरण आदि प्रकाशित कीजिए।


समर्थक

सोमवार, 30 जून 2014

SIKHISM

Beautiful and Amazing Photographs of Guru Nanak Dev jiPicture of the Week: Guru Nanak DevjiGuru Nanak dev ji Picsguru_nanak_dev_jinanak-dev-ji-wallpaper.jpgGuru Nanak Dev Ji:-Guru Nanak Dev Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 3010 Guru Nanak Dev Ji Wallpapers

(1)Sikhism is a practical religion .It does not consists in a certain set of beliefs or mere words .Religion does not imply wandering to shrines and tombs , or following austerities of Yogis .Sikhism is a way of life ,something to be lived to a pattern .Its main virtue is simplicity .There is no super naturalism or mythology on which it rests .It does not believe in devils or angels or heavenly spirits.

(2) Sikhism is a universal religion .

(3) Sikhism is opposed to all ritualism and formalism .

(4) Sikhism does not enjoin blind faith .Blind obedience to an external authority is discouraged .The death of the intellect can not be a condition of the life of the spirit .Faith does not start with surmises or absurdities .

(5)Sikhism is a faith of hope and cheer .Though it affirms Karma ,it recognises the possibility of the modification of one's Karma with the grace of the Guru or God .It does not lead to despair and defeatism .

(6) Sikhism is a democratic religion .The decisions of the Sangat are regarded as resolutions having the force of law (Gurmata )Guru Gobind Singh Sahib vested the authority of the organization in the Panth .

Sikhism , the youngest of the world religions ,is barely five hundred years old .Its founder ,Guru Nanak Dev Ji ,was born in 1469 .Guru Nanak Dev Ji spread a simple message of "Ek OnKar "-it means ,we all are one ,created by the One Creator of all Creation .His followers began to be called as Sikhs (learners ).He opposed superstition ,rituals ,social inequality , injustice ,renunciation and hypocrisy .

He infused his own consciousness into a disciple ,who then became Guru ,subsequently passing the light on to the next ,and so on .Each one of the ten Gurus represents a divine attribute .

(1)Guru Nanak Dev Ji -Humility 

(2) Guru Angad Dev Ji -Obedience 

(3)Guru Amar Das Ji -Equality 

(4) Guru Ram Das Ji -Service 

(5) Guru Arjan Dev Ji -Self Sacrifice

(6) Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji -Justice 

(7 )Guru Har Rai Ji -Mercy 

(8) Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji -Purity 

(9 )Guru Tegh Bahadur Singh Ji -Tranquility 

(10) Guru Gobind Singh Ji -Royal Courage 

Guru Gobind Singh Ji ,the Tenth Guru ,exemplified the Sikh ideal of the Saint -Soldier .He created the Khalsa , a spiritual brotherhood and sisterhood devoted to purity of thought and action .He gave the Khalsa a distinctive external form to remind them of their commitment ,and to help them maintain an elevated state of consciousness .Every Sikh baptized as Khalsa vows to wear the Five "K's"(Panj Kakaars).Guru Gobind Singh Ji was an inspired and prolific writer ,courageous warrior , and a source of Divine Wisdom to his Sikhs ."When all other means have failed "he said ,only then it is righteous to take up the sword."He was the defender of the poor ,and the oppressed masses of India.

Guru Gobind Singh Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 14Sikh Guru "Guru Gobind Singh ji" WallpapersSikh Guru "Guru Gobind Singh ji" Wallpapersguru gobind singh ji hd wallpapers guru gobind singh ji hd wallpapers ...Guru Gobind Singh Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 13Guru Gobind Singh Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 12guru gobind singh ji hd wallpapers guru gobind singh jiGuru Gobind Singh Ji Jayanti 2013 SMS, Greetings, Wishes, Wallpapers

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Guru Nanak Says :


Guru Nanak Dev Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 13Ganesh Utsav, Navratri Utsav, Ganesh wallpaper, Navratri wallpapers ...Guru Nanak Dev Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 38Guru Nanak Dev Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 26Honoring Guru Nanak — And Whoever’s Hanging On Your WallGuru Nanak Dev Ji 1024x768 Wallpaper # 30Guru Nanak Dev Ji Wallpapers

From a woman ,man is born ; within a woman ,man is conceived ;to a woman he is engaged and married .The woman is his life companion ;through woman ,the future generations are born .Woman give birth to kings or great men .So how can a woman be inferior in any respect ?Nanak says "only the true Lord's is self existent .The human being who praises the Lord continuously is blessed and beautiful .And Nanak says that those individuals will get a warm welcome in the Court of the True Lord .
         
                    -       Guru Nanak Dev Ji ,Sri Guru Granth Sahib -page 473

We appeal to Modi Govt to give 50% reservations to women instead of the 33% much sought after in the houses (Lower ,Upper houses and the state assemblies ).

कुछ पंक्तियाँ ज़हन में आईं हैं !

एक अरसे के बाद कुछ पंक्तियाँ ज़हन में आईं हैं ! 
आप सभी गुणीजनों के नज़्र कर रहा हूँ  
किसी लायक हों तो हौसला दीजिएगा. 
   माना बहुत कठिन है ऐसे दौर में मनवाना सच को, 
झूठ बना देता है हद से ज़्यादा दोहराना सच को।
अरे सियासतदानों कुछ तो सोचो अब तो बंद करो,
झूठ के सुन्दर चमकीले फ्रेमों में मढ़वाना सच को।
अखिलेश 'कृष्णवंशी'

Bust all snoring myths

Bust all snoring myths
Bust all snoring myths (Thinkstock Photos/ Getty Images)







Tired of being called names and listening to complaints from your partner because you snore at night? 

But more than that, it is important to keep a check on your snoring as an excess of it can be an indicator of many diseases, one of them being sleep apnea, says Dr Kaushal Sheth, ENT surgeon, "People develop sleep apnea when their airway collapses partially or completely during sleep due to various medical conditions. This causes the oxygen levels in the blood to decrease and can be potentially life threatening when it becomes obstructive sleep apnea."

Elaborating on it further, Dr Jayashree Todkar, bariatric surgeon and obesity consultant says "Snoring is an indication of obstacles in a person's breathing. When excessive fat accumulates around the stomach, the lungs do not get ample space to expand when we inhale oxygen; this in turn leads to obstacles in the process of inhalation-exhalation."

However, there are many myths surrounding snoring which is a very common problem. To sleep better one must get rid of the myths that surround snoring and only accept the facts, says Dr Viranchi Oza, BDS as he gives us a lowdown of some stories around snoring:


Myth: Everybody snores, therefore it's normal.
Fact: Snoring is not a normal condition. Labelling it as 'normal' diminishes the seriousness of the condition. Snoring is not just about annoying your partner, it is a sign that the body is struggling to breathe properly during the night. Snoring on a frequent or regular basis has been associated with hypertension and can also be an indication of sleep apnea (pauses in breathing). Sleep apnea sufferers have been reported to have diminished gray cells in their brains, most likely due to the oxygen deprivation of untreated sleep apnea. If left untreated, sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular disease over time. In addition, insufficient sleep affects growth hormone secretion that is linked to obesity. As the amount of hormone secretion decreases, the chance of weight gain increases.

Myth: Snoring only affects the health of the snorer.
Fact: Snoring doesn't just negatively affect the health of the person snoring, but also the health of the person lying next to them in bed. A typical snorer usually produces a noise that averages around 60 decibels (about the level of vacuum cleaner), but with some people this can reach 80 or even 90 decibels (about the level of an average factory). Sleeping with a partner who snores during the night has been shown to increase the blood pressure in the other person, which may be dangerous for their health in the long term. Snoring also causes the partner to have fragmented sleep and lose up to one hour of sleep
every night.

Myth: Snoring comes from the nose, so if I unclog my nose, my snoring will stop.
Fact: Having a stuffy nose can definitely aggravate snoring and sleep apnea, but in it's not the cause. A recent study showed that undergoing nasal surgery for breathing problems cured sleep apnea in only 10% of patients. Snoring vibrations typically come from the soft palate, which is aggravated by having a small jaw and the tongue falling back. It's a complicated relationship between the nose, the soft palate and the tongue.

Myth: I know I don't snore, or have apnea. I am fine.
Fact: Don't ignore your wife when she tells you that your snoring doesn't let her sleep. When a partner snores it is very difficult for the spouse to sleep. There are people who snore excessively and suffer from sleep apnea, but feel absolutely normal. However, snoring increases their risk of getting a heart attack and stroke. The only definitive way to prove that you don't have sleep apnea is by taking a sleep test. Screening questionnaires like the GASP or the Epworth have shown high reliability in identifying patient risk for sleep apnea.

Myth: If I lose weight, I'll cure myself of sleep apnea.
Fact: Sometimes. It's definitely worth trying, but in general, it's very difficult to lose weight if you have sleep apnea. This is because poor sleep aggravates weight gain by increasing your appetite. Once you're sleeping better, it'll be easier to lose weight. This is the one ingredient with many dietary and weight loss programs that's missing or not stressed at all. It's not enough just to tell people to sleep more.

Myth: Health problems such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and depression have no relation to the amount and quality of a person's sleep.
Fact: More and more scientific studies are showing a correlation between poor quality sleep and insufficient sleep with a variety of diseases. Blood pressure is variable during the sleep cycle, however, interrupted sleep negatively affects the normal variability. Recent studies have shown that nearly 80% cases of hypertension, 60% cases of strokes and 50% cases of heart failures are actually cases of undiagnosed sleep apnea. Research indicates that insufficient sleep impairs the body's ability to use insulin, which can lead to the onset of diabetes. Fragmented sleep can cause a lowered metabolism and increased levels of the hormone Cortisol which results in an increased appetite and a decrease in one's ability to burn calories.

Myth: Daytime sleepiness means a person is not getting enough sleep.
Fact: Do you feel very sleepy even during the day despite the fact that you had a long night of proper sleep? Excessive daytime sleepiness can occur even after a person gets enough sleep. Such sleepiness can be a sign of an underlying medical condition or sleep disorder such as narcolepsy or sleep apnea. Please seek professional medical advice to correctly diagnose the cause of this symptom.

Myth: Getting just one hour less sleep per night than needed will not have any effect on your daytime functioning.
Fact: This lack of sleep may not make you noticeably sleepy during the day. But even if you've got slightly less sleep, it can affect your ability to think properly and respond quickly. It can compromise your cardiovascular health and energy balance as well as the ability to fight infections, particularly if the pattern continues. Lack of sleep has also been associated with road accidents (up to 60% of road accidents involve lack of sleep) and air crashes (Air India Mangalore plane crash in 2010 was due to lack of sleep). Sleeping for less than six hours a night is equivalent to legal levels of alcohol intoxication.

Myth: Sleep apnea occurs only in older, overweight men with big necks.
Fact: Although the stereotypical description does fit people in the extreme end of the spectrum, we now know that even young, thin women that don't snore can have significant obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep apnea begins with jaw structure narrowing and later involves obesity. It's estimated that 90% of women with this condition are not diagnosed. Untreated, it can cause or aggravate weight gain, depression, anxiety, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

Myth: Snoring can't be treated.
Fact: Have you given up on your snoring thinking that it cannot be treated? There are many different options for treating snoring.

Some treatment options are rather drastic, possibly requiring surgery or prescription drugs, but prior to exploring such options it would be wise to first seek out alternative treatments. You must visit a sleep specialist to get the right diagnosis.

Myth: Extra sleep at night can cure you of problems with excessive daytime fatigue.
Fact: Not only is the quantity of sleep important but also the quality of sleep. Some people sleep eight-nine hours a night but don't feel well rested as the quality of their sleep is poor. A number of sleep disorders and other medical conditions affect the quality of sleep. Sleeping more won't alleviate the daytime sleepiness these disorders or conditions cause. However, many of these disorders or conditions can be treated effectively with changes in behaviour or with medical therapies.

Myth: Insomnia is characterised only by difficulty in falling asleep.
Fact: There are four symptoms usually associated with insomnia:
- Difficulty falling asleep
- Waking up too early and not being able to get back to sleep
- Frequent awakenings
- Waking up feeling tired and not so fresh

Insomnia can also be a symptom of a sleep disorder or other medical, psychological or psychiatric problems. Sometimes, insomnia can really be a case of undiagnosed sleep apnea.

National Herald case: The end of Sonia Gandhi?

​Sonia Gandhi<br>

The most underplayed story of 2014 has to be the National Herald scam where Congress head honchos Sonia and Rahul Gandhi have been implicated. The mainstream media continues to be afraid of Sonia as was shown by the coverage.

First things first: Now it is no longer a case of BJP leader Subramanian Swamy's allegations against the dynasty. It is a serious court case and both Sonia and Rahul are the accused.

The judge in the case observed: From the complaint and evidence led so far it appears YI (or Young Indian) was in fact created as a sham or a cloak to convert public money to personal use or as a special purpose vehicle for acquiring control over Rs 2000 crore worth of assets.

With both Sonia and Rahul being the majority shareholders of Young Indian, they now join the ranks of hundreds of current and former parliamentarians who have various types of cases being filed against them. 

It was funny how certain newspapers buried the news in the inside pages and some TV channels gave a pro-Sonia spin by calling it a mere "summons" or dubbing it a "Swamy versus Gandhis" story.

The truth is that this is probably the biggest negative development against Sonia in her political career. It may spell the end of the road for her. With the court taking the case seriously, we can expect a long-drawn battle with the Congress leaving no stone unturned in defending Sonia.

However the writing is on the wall. No matter what the outcome, the case will be taken first to the High Court and finally to the Supreme Court. The whole process may take 5-10 years. And therein is the point that the aura of invincibility may be shattered when it comes to Sonia.

Imagine for a decade Sonia will be like any other mortal. She will regularly have to make court appearances and will not be able to travel abroad frequently without scrutiny as she has been doing so in the past.

If the court asks Sonia and Rahul to surrender their passports as is being demanded by Swamy, then it will be the final ignominy. It may also be recalled that this is not the first case to go against Sonia.

A Sikh group in the US has filed a case against her related to the 1984 riots. She has been asked to appear in a US court and also to show her passport. With the way things are going, she may never want to visit the US ever again.

How the tables have turned! Before May 16, it was Prime Minister Narendra Modi who couldn't visit the United States. But now Washington DC will roll out a red carpet welcome for Modi while Sonia may find herself with a self-imposed ban.

Then these are merely the first dominoes. This will embolden all her opponents to file all manner of cases against her. She is no longer the Sphinx who couldn't be touched, who couldn't be spoken to and who couldn't be made "unhappy".

Sonia was in a position of weakness with a mere 44 MPs in the Lok Sabha even before the National Herald case. Her biggest problem is: Her son Rahul happens to be a co-accused in the case and if Sonia goes down, then Rahul may well go with her.

It is a well-known fact that senior Congress leaders are always uncomfortable with the dynasty but happen to go along with them because they are vote-catchers and somehow manage to be the glue that holds the Congress together.

But every dynast has seen dissent. Jawaharlal Nehru's deputy was Sardar Vallabhai Patel who died in 1950. When it comes to the others, a good six out of ten ministers from the inaugural Cabinet revolted against Nehru and left.

India's only Indian Governor General C Rajagopalachari also quit the Congress and launched his own party.

The list of the tales of the multitude Congress leaders who rebelled against Indira Gandhi would fill a book.

Pranab Mukherjee rebelled against Rajiv Gandhi without much success while VP Singh managed to topple the Congress in 1989.

Sonia took over the Congress in 1998 and escaped such form of dissent so far. But things are rapidly changing. A record low Lok Sabha seats and scandals reduces Sonia to the level of any other politician.

She is no longer a vote catcher and Rahul has already failed in the eyes of many.

After the defeat some junior Congress leaders questioned the dynasty.

They were silenced.

But now the senior leaders have started.

First there was AK Antony's doubt on Congress secularism. Then Digvijay Singh questioned Rahul's leadership credentials.

For Sonia this is just the beginning...of the end.

Eating more fruits and vegetables won't help you lose weight if you don't reduce the number of calories you're eating overall.

5 studies you may have missed


Eating more fruits and vegetables won't help you lose 

weight if you don't reduce the number of calories you're 

eating overall.



5 studies you may have missed

Here's a roundup of five medical studies published this week that might give you new insights into your health, mind and body. Remember, correlation is not causation – so if a study finds a connection between two things, it doesn't mean that one causes the other.

Eating more fruits and veggies won’t make you lose weight
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

We’re often told to eat more fruits and vegetables, but the chances that you’ll lose weight just by eating more of these foods are slim. New research suggests increased fruit and vegetable intake is only effective for weight loss if you make an effort to reduce your calorie intake overall.

In other words, you need to exercise or consume fewer calories to shed those pounds.

Don’t let that stop you from including more fruits and veggies in your diet, though. Even if they don’t directly help you lose weight, these foods still provide a number of health benefits.

What your smartphone says about your health
Journal: PeerJ

Add it to the list of things your smartphone knows about you. Your mobile device reflects your personal bacterial “blueprint," meaning it can reveal the microorganisms you’re harboring on your hands.

Researchers looked at the phones of 17 people and found that 82% of the most common bacteria on participants’ fingers were also found on their phones. The researchers say further understanding of this link could have important public health implications.

“Mobile phones can potentially be a non-invasive way to track environmental microbial exposure over time and space, and inform how we exchange human microbiota with our immediate surroundings,” the study authors write.

It’s important to note, however, that the study’s sample size was very small and only looked at phones with touchscreens.

Why you should kick the smokeless habit
Journal: Circulation

As Major League Baseball considers a ban on smokeless tobacco, new research shows stopping use after a heart attack cuts your mortality risk nearly in half.

Swedish researchers studied almost 2,500 smokeless tobacco users who experienced heart attacks. Comparing those who quit using smokeless tobacco with those who continued to use it after the heart attack, the scientists found that the risk of mortality was almost halved in those who quit.

Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Amritsar ,Panjab

The Golden Temple, AmritsarThe Golden Temple, AmritsarGOLDEN TEMPLE AMRITSAR INDIA... and only men can take a holy bath in the pool around the golden temple... and only men can take a holy bath in the pool around the golden templeGolden Temple, AmritsarGolden Temple PictureThe Golden Temple, Amritsar

Sri Harminder  Sahib also known as Sri Darbar Sahib or Golden 

Temple is named after Hari (God )the Temple of God .Guru Arjan Dev Ji conceived the idea of creating a central place of worship for Sikhs (Sikhs means learners )and he himself designed the architecture of Sri Harminder Sahib .Earlier the planning to excavate the holy tank (Amrit Sarovar )was chalked out by Guru Amar Das Ji under the supervision of Baba Budha Ji.The work on this project completed in 1577 A.D.Guru Arjan Dev Ji got its foundation laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir of Lahore on I Magh ,1645 Vikrami Samvat .The building work completed in 1601 A.D. on Bhadoon Sudi I ,1661 Bikram Samvat .It has gates on all four sides and accessible to every person without any distinction of Caste ,Creed ,Sex and Religion .

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Vaisakhi Day :14 April ,1699




Thousands celebrating the Sikh festival





Vaisakhi is a very important day for Sikhs and one of the most colorful events in the Sikh calendar .It occurs during mid -April every year and traditionally concurs in Punjab with the first harvesting of the crops for the year .So ,historically ,it has been a very joyous occasion and a time for celebration .However ,since 1699 ,it had marked the very significant religious event of the creation of the Khalsa .


Khalsa vowed to have a daily spiritual practice of reading 5 banis (scriptures ).Khalsa vowed to follow the basic tenets of Bana (uniform ),Bani(scriprures),Simran (meditative recitation),Seva (service).Khalsa also vows to refrain from any sexual relationship outside  of marriage ,and to refrain from taking meat ,tobacco ,alcohol ,and all other intoxicants .

Then Guru Gobind Singh infused his own being into the Khalsa ,declaring that the Khalsa was now the Guru in all temporal matters .For spiritual matters ,The Guruship was given to "Sri Guru Granth Sahib ", a compilation of sacred writings by those who have experienced Truth .For Sikhs ,"Sri Guru Granth Sahib " is the living embodiment of the Guru , and is regarded with the utmost reverence and respect wherever it is found .Sikhs all over the world took to the "Sri Guru Granth Sahib " as their living Guru  ,as the source of spiritual instruction and guidance .

Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

0301 Sri Guru Granth Sahib JiFor a man with ‘I’ ego, Sri Guru Granth Sahib is only a Book.Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji (1708 - Eternity)Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scriptureSri Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scriptureTakht Sri Hazur Sahib - Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji and Sri Dasam Granth ...Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

After compilation of Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji ,Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave a central place of worship in Harminder Sahib .He collected hymns from Bhai Mohan Ji ,the son of Shri Guru Amar Das Ji ,the hymns of the first three gurus and some bhagats and added to them the compositions of his father Shri Guru Ram Das Ji and his own .He got the adi granth written by Bhai Gurdas .Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji got the original after binding .He installed the holy book at Shri Harminder Sahib Ji in 1604 .Baba buddha Ji was appointed as its first granthi-interpreter and care taker .The major principle of compilation was that verses which praised god and denounced superstitions and caste system were to be included in the holy book .Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji included the verses of those who believed in the unity of god and brotherhood of man .

In selecting the musical scores -ragas ,the guruji employed homely and simple metaphors.Generally speaking ,hymns of devotion ,the glory of god ,men's spiritual efforts and equality of men and women were incorporated in the holy book .Truth ,contentment and wisdom with the name of god which is the basis of all .Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji's aim was to provide a book of universal religion for everybody ,everywhere and forever.

Shri Guru granth Sahib Ji is both metaphysics and ethics ,the science of reality and the art of union with reality .It gives us a vision of truth ,and it opens up new paths for the mind of man .It is a work of divine inspiration ,primarily spiritual and incidentally philosophical .It is a collection of devotion poems and prayers .The gurus accept certain fundamentals laws like karma , the cycle of birth and death and maya .Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji incorporated the hymns of some bhagats who subscribed to the unity of God and the cult of bhagati .

People of god ! Come ,assemble ,live in this light 

Dissolve this song into your soul .

Rejoice and partake of this immortal feast .

Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji contains gurbani or the guru's teachings .It is the guru incarnate .Shri Guru Gobind Sahib Ji installed Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the timeless guru.Shri Guru Granth Sahaib Ji is a sort of living guru in the midst of the sikhs .Guru means spiritual guide or torch bearer .Shri Guru Granth Sahib ji gives light and good counsel .Its hymns are used by the Sikhs at the time of birth ,marriage and death .Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is the most valuable treasure of divine knowledge and mysticism .

Sabh sikhen ko hukam hai ,guru maanio granth .

                            - Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji .

It is the perpetual guru of the Khalsa panth .It contains the philosophy of sikhism.

Therefore it is essential to all the sikh ceremonies and festivals .

The sikhs believe in universal brotherhood .They love the whole mankind equally ,without 

Any discrimination of genders ,color ,creed or religion .

As the world has emerged from one divine light .

Then who can be graded as good or bad .

एक नूर ते सब जग उपज्यो ,कौन भले मौन मंदे 

 SHRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI .        PAGE -1349

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Why Hangovers Can Be Contagious

avoid-hangovers
Photo: Getty Images

Anyone who’s had one too many at girls’ night knows that friends can influence boozing behavior. New research from the University of Liverpool confirms it: In the study (conducted in a bar setting), 80% of participants ordered an alcoholic drink when their buddy did, while only 30% chose alcohol when their friend had soda.
Here’s how to keep yourself in control:

Set a limit

Tell your pals, “I’m sticking to two tonight,” says Simon Rego, PsyD, associate professor of clinical psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City.

Make it a double

With every alcoholic drink you order, get a glass of H2O, and finish both before your next round. You’ll stay hydrated (which helps ward off hangovers) and also have something to hold.

Use an app

Your smartphone will likely be out anyway, so why not tap an app for each drink you consume? “It adds one more layer of awareness,” Rego says. (Try Liquor Log by Sebastian Schenk, $2 on iTunes.)

रविवार, 29 जून 2014

Are you a heavy drinker? You'd be surprised

(CNN) -- Sheldon Shiraki sits at the bar in the trendy Fritti restaurant in Atlanta, happily sipping an ice cold cocktail.

Asked how many drinks it would take for the government to consider him a "heavy drinker," he laughs.

"I don't know -- maybe 25 to 30 drinks," Shiraki says.

"A month?" I ask.

"A week," Shiraki says with a smile.

"Let me do the math," his friend Pamela Gjerde says from the next bar stool over. A local, she calls the bartender by name and says she will sip a glass of white wine a couple days a week. For a woman to be considered a "heavy drinker" she thinks she'd have to have 15 to 20 drinks weekly.

They both looked shocked to learn they seriously overestimated the number.

Women are considered "heavy drinkers" if they have eight or more drinks a week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Men can have 14. At 15, you, my friend, are a "heavy drinker" in the eyes of the CDC.

One in 10 deaths among adults between the ages of 20 and 64 are due to excessive alcohol consumption, the CDC says in a report released Wednesday. That means some 88,000 people die a year as a result of drinking too much. The majority of those are men -- about 70%.

Do you consider yourself a light, moderate or heavy drinker? Health agencies have these definitions to help you understand when your drinking may become a health problem.

The definition is different for women because women's bodies are typically smaller than men's. They also metabolize less alcohol in the stomach, meaning more ends up in their blood stream.

A standard "drink," by the way, is not that big frosty mug or that giant Hurricane glass you kept from Mardi Gras. The CDC says a drink is 12 ounces of beer (5% alcohol content), 8 ounces of malt liquor (7% alcohol content), 5 ounces of wine (12% alcohol content), or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol content) distilled spirits or liquor -- the fancy term for gin, rum, vodka, whiskey etc.

"That seems awfully low," Shiraki says. "I would think someone is a heavy drinker if they get drunk all the time. Two or three a night wouldn't do that."

"That definition is crazy."

Drinking heavily

"The definition of 'heavy drinker' has evolved over the last 20 years and it is based on scientific evidence about the harmful consequences of drinking too much," says George F. Koob, director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, who has sat on the committees that create those definitions.

The definition on NIAAA's website of "heavy" or "at-risk" drinking is the same as the CDC's.

But the National Survey on Drug Use and Health has another. They say "heavy use" is "five or more drinks on the same occasion, on each of five or more days in the past 30 days."

So which one is it?

"It's imprecise and not quantitative. I try to avoid using terms like 'heavy,' 'light' and 'moderate' for that reason in my publications," says Dr. Arthur Klatsky who has been studying alcohol and its impact on humans for decades. "The problem is everyone always wants to know if they fit into one of those categories."

Koob says the definitions vary because they're "not handed down to Moses from God on Mount Olympus." They are based on epidemiological studies that show the long-term negative consequences of heavy drinking.

The 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that heavy drinking was reported by 6.5% of the population over 12. That's about 17 million people. The rate was the same in 2011.

Those statistics are probably undercounting the real numbers, both Koob and Klatsky say.

Heaving drinking can lead to chronic diseases, including problems with your liver, throat, larynx and esophagus. It can lead to high blood pressure, psychological problems, and pancreatitis. It even puts you at an increased risk for becoming a victim of violence.

And of course you ultimately risk becoming an alcoholic.

Too much -- or not enough?

One in 4 people who fall into the "heavy drinking" category already have an alcohol abuse problem, according to the NIAAA. Binge drinkers -- women who drink more than four drinks in an outing and men who drink more than five -- are a growing concern.

"The real worry these days is the number of young people who binge drink in college," Koob says. "We were all 21 once, we all drank, but what this generation considers intoxicated has doubled over the last 20 years.

"Binge drinking has become a disturbing norm."

Not only does this put students at risk for violence, sexual assault, and all the above mentioned diseases, it can damage their brains. The frontal cortex -- the part of the brain that helps you make decisions and control impulsivity -- doesn't develop fully until you are 25. Binge drinking, studies show, can delay development of executive function.

Klatsky says the pattern of when you drink is just as important to your health as the total number. Abstaining much of the week and then having all seven drinks on Saturday is also bad for your health.

In addition to knowing what defines "heavy drinking," people should also know what "light" and "moderate" drinking is, Koob says.

Studies show the mortality rate for people who drink moderately on a daily basis is actually lower than those who don't indulge.

"There are health benefits to a lower level of drinking."

Klatsky says it is more important to focus on the broader issue of alcohol problems than getting caught up in semantics.

"There is an old joke all of us went to medical school used to hear," Klatsky says. "The definition of something like what is a 'heavy drinker' is one more than the upper limit of what the person making the definition drinks."

सबसे बड़ी गुत्थी है इंसानी दिमाग

brain

मशीन और इंसान में एक मौलिक अंतर यह है कि मशीनों के पास दिमाग नहीं होता। अगर होता तो मशीनें अब तक इंसानों को अपना गुलाम बना चुकी होतीं। पर संसार के बाकी जीवधारियों को पछाड़ कर धरती पर छा जाने वाले इंसान के दिमाग का विकास कैसे होता है और यह काम कैसे करता है, यह बात खुद इंसान के लिए पहेली बनी हुई है।

इधर कुछ समय से इस पहेली को सुलझाने की कोशिशें की जा रही हैं। प्रयोगशालाओं में इंसानी दिमाग जैसी संरचनाएं बनाई गई हैं और दिमाग को पढ़ने के लिए तमाम परियोजनाएं शुरू की गई हैं। कहा जा रहा है कि इस तरह जल्द ही हमारा अपना दिमाग हमारे काबू में होगा।

हू-ब-हू इंसानी दिमाग जैसी संरचना बनाने का काम पिछले साल ऑस्ट्रिया के इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ मॉलिक्युलर बायोटेक्नोलॉजी के साइंटिस्ट जे. नॉबब्लिच और मेडेलिन लेनकास्टर के साथ ब्रिटेन की एडिनबर्ग यूनिवर्सिटी की ह्यूमन जेनेटिक्स यूनिट के रिर्सचरों ने किया। उन्होंने प्रयोगशाला में दिमागी ऊतकों (टिश्यूज) का त्रि-आयामी विकास करने में सफलता हासिल की। इन वैज्ञानिकों का दावा है कि उन्होंने प्रयोगशाला में सेरीब्रल ऑर्गेनॉइड्स का विकास कर लिया है। इन्हीं संरचनाओं को मिनी ब्रेन भी कहा जा रहा है।

मिनी ब्रेन बनाने के लिए साइंटिस्टों ने इंसान के स्टेम सेल्स का सहारा लिया और प्रयोगशाला में ऐसी स्थितियां पैदा कीं, जिनमें इंसानी दिमाग जैसे कई क्षेत्र (रीजन) विकसित हो गए।

प्रयोगशाला में इंसानी दिमाग का यह छोटा स्वरूप बना लिया जाना हमारी सभ्यता के नजरिये से एक महान उपलब्धि हो सकती है। एक बार जब हम यह जान लेंगे कि इंसान का दिमाग कैसे विकसित होता है और किन हालात में वह विभिन्न जटिलताओं (मानसिक रोगों) का शिकार हो जाता है, तो आविष्कार करने, मौलिक संरचनाएं बनाने और आतंकी-विध्वंसकारी मानसिकता से जुड़े पहलुओं को समझना तथा उन पर काबू पाना आसान हो जाएगा।

असल में, जिस दुनिया को सदियों की इंसानी करामात का नतीजा कहा जाता रहा है, वह मानव मस्तिष्क की ही एक देन है। अन्य जीवधारियों से अलग इंसानी दिमाग हर वक्त सूचनाएं बटोरता रहता है, उनकी पड़ताल करता है, उन्हें स्टोर करता है और चुपचाप हमारे लिए चेतना और यथार्थ का एक संसार रचता जाता है। साइंटिस्ट तो यह भी कहते हैं कि हमारे 10 खरब ब्रेन सेल्स जिस काम में लगे रहते हैं, उनके 90 फीसदी हिस्से की सक्रियता अवचेतन में होती है। हमारे सचेत मन को इसका पता नहीं होता कि बाकी दिमाग उससे सलाह ही नहीं लेता। पर कई बार अवचेतन में जमा यही जानकारियां दिमागी खेल को एक झटके से नया मोड़ दे देती है।

शायद इसीलिए कहा जाता रहा है कि मानव सभ्यता के लिए सदियों से जो रहस्य अनसुलझे रहे हैं, उनमें एक से उसका सबसे करीबी रिश्ता है। वह है इंसान का अपना दिमाग, जिसके कोनों में असंख्य गुत्थियां अनसुलझी पड़ी हैं। यह खुद में एक करिश्मा ही है कि जो काम आज के ताकतवर कंप्यूटर तक नहीं कर पाते, उसे कुछ इंसानी दिमाग कुछ पलों में कर डालते हैं। मौलिक सोच और नई रचना का सारा श्रेय इंसानी दिमाग में कैद इन्हीं रहस्यों को जाता है।

बहरहाल, दिमाग को समझने की इन कोशिशों का मकसद सिर्फ मानसिक विकारों से निपटने के रास्ते खोज लेना भर नहीं है। इसके पीछे कहीं न कहीं वह सोच भी काम कर रही है, जो कुछ तबकों को बाकी दुनिया से श्रेष्ठ बनाए रखना चाहती है। जैसे, पिछले ही साल इंसानी दिमाग को पढ़ने के लिए अमेरिका ने 10 करोड़ डॉलर की लागत वाला जो ब्रेन मैपिंग प्रोजेक्ट लॉन्च किया था, उसका उद्देश्य कुछ ऐसा ही है।

कहने को तो अमेरिका के ब्रेन रिसर्च थ्रू अडवांसिंग इनोवेटिव न्यूरोटेक्नोलॉजीज के जरिये यह जानने का प्रयास किया जा रहा है कि जो विचार कंप्यूटर पैदा नहीं कर पाते हैं, इंसानी दिमाग उन तक कैसे पहुंच जाता है। लेकिन जो बात इस प्रोजेक्ट की लॉन्चिंग के वक्त ओबामा ने कही थी, वह ज्यादा ध्यान देने वाली है। दिमाग को पढ़ने की इस कोशिश का एक कारण ओबामा ने रोजगारों पर भारतीय और चीनियों का दबदबा खत्म करना बताया था। उनके बयान का आशय यह था कि हमेशा की तरह रोजगार पैदा करने वाली खोजें अमेरिका में ही हों, न कि भारत, चीन या जर्मनी में।

दिमाग की गुत्थियां सुलझाने की पहल को ओबामा रोजगार सृजन के संदर्भ में देख रहे हैं। अपनी इस चिंता के जरिये वे अमेरिकी जनता को आश्वस्त करना चाह रहे होंगे कि वे रोजगारों को एशियाई लोगों के हाथों में नहीं जाने देना चाहते। लेकिन आज हर देश यही यही चाहेगा कि बड़े आविष्कार उसकी जमीन पर हों और उसकी जनता की दिमागी सेहत दुरुस्त रहे। 

सन्दर्भ -सामिग्री :http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/other/thoughts-platform/viewpoint/human-brain-is-the-biggest-mystery/articleshow/37326106.cms