(१)सफ़ेद मोतिया (cataract )से बचाव कर सकती है विटामिन -C और पादप रंजक (PLANT PIGMENT OR CAROTENOIDS )से संसिक्त खुराक
(२)दिन भर मूड को हाई रखने के लिए अवसाद को टाले रखने के लिए ओमेगा थ्री -फैट्स से भरपूर अखरोट खाइये
(३)Could spinal fluid test give early Alzheimer’s warning?
The study was published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Cell and has been made available on an open access basis, meaning it is free to read online.
- the test correctly picked up 90% of people with Alzheimer’s – meaning that 10% of those with the disease would be missed (false negatives)
- the test correctly identified 92% of those without the disease – meaning that 8% of people who did not have Alzheimer’s would test positive (false positives)
- of those who tested positive, 88% did have Alzheimer’s (so about 1 in 10 people who tested positive would not in fact have the illness)
- of those who tested negative, 93% did not have Alzheimer’s (so under 1 in 10 of people who tested negative would actually have the illness)
- the development of this test is at a very early stage, and the study design used here is not ideal for assessing the test’s diagnostic accuracy. Population-based testing may follow, allowing researchers to better assess the accuracy and, more importantly, how many people could be given an incorrect diagnosis of dementia based on this test. However, development still needs to be done before population-based testing could be considered
- it included samples from a small number of people diagnosed with different neurological conditions. The people in the trial with Alzheimer’s had not had post-mortem brain examinations, so their diagnosis was confirmed using just clinical testing
- the researchers could not get the test to work on one set of samples. To be used in real life medical practice, it would have to be shown to reproducibly get good results
- the proportion of the positive and negative tests that are correct is affected by the number of people being tested who actually have the illness. The test performed well on a set of samples where around a third of participants had Alzheimer’s. These results would be different if fewer people being tested had the illness, and the proportion of positive tests for people without the disease would be higher
(4)World Tuberculosis Day 2014: 3 challenges facing treatment of TB in India
- World Tuberculosis Day 2014: Revolutionary medicine — doctor treats MDR-TB patients with leprosy drugs
- World Tuberculosis Day 2014 — common diagnostic tests for tuberculosis explained
- World Tuberculosis Day 2014: Tuberculosis – causes, symptoms and diagnosis
- Ten facts you didn’t know about tuberculosis
- How you can prevent tuberculosis
- Revolutionary medicine — doctor treats MDR-TB patients with leprosy drugs
- Drug-resistant TB on the rise in India
- How India’s faring in the battle against TB
- Extremely drug resistant TB rearing its head in India
The truth about tuberculosis
Drug resistance: major threat
Rising drug incidence happens to be the biggest threat to TB control and cure.
Drug resistant TB happens when the bacteria develops resistance to the most commonly used drugs in the first line of treatment regimen, leading to multidrug- resistant TB ( MDR- TB) and in extreme cases, extensively drug resistant TB ( XDR TB), where the bacteria fail to respond to even second line drugs," says Dr Chandan Kedawat, internal medicine specialist, PSRI Hospital. The other problem is that of patients not sticking to their drug regimen. " They end up discontinuing it because they feel better within a few weeks whereas the medicines should be taken for six months," points out Dr Kedawat.
Poor drug regulation
TB control has also become a challenge because of poor drug regulation and spiralling treatment costs. " Poor drug regulation has fuelled drug resistant TB, along with lack of discipline when it comes to TB regimen. There is no accountability, when it comes to adhering to proper diagnostic and treatment rules," says Dr Swati Sharma, New Delhi based internal medicine specialist. According to experts, lack of drug regulation has made even basic treatment of drug- sensitive TB difficult to monitor. " There are so many different formulations of TB drugs sold across and absolutely no monitoring," adds Dr Sharma.
Irrational prescription and indiscriminate use of non- WHO recommended drug regimens has become a huge problem. " It is the patients who suffer the consequences of poor regulation of TB drug formulations in India. An increasing number of our patients are being diagnosed with drug resistant TB ( DR- TB). We encounter a spectrum of resistance patterns which range from mono- drugresistant TB all the way through to extensively drug- resistant TB ( XDR TB)," says Dr Simon Janes, medical coordinator, MÃ©decins Sans FrontiÃ¨res ( MSF) India.
One of the biggest problems in the TB landscape continues to be that of misdiagnosis, because symptoms of this condition are very much similar to several other conditions. " Common conditions which are misdiagnosed as TB include infections caused by bacteria, parasite and fungal affecting different organs can mimic TB and need to diagnosed accordingly. Some malignancy like lymphoma can also mimic TB," says Dr Homa Mansoor, TB referent, MSF India. It takes a couple of tests to rule in TB and rule out other similar chest infections. " Usually chronic coughs lasting longer than two weeks and high fever; and an abnormal x- ray are considered to be suggestive of TB. But these are not restricted to TB, and could also be suggestive of other chest infections like bronchiatasis," says Dr Das.
Hence other diagnostic tests need to be performed to consider initiating antitubercular treatment. There are also other conditions, symptoms of which are familiar to TB. " Conditions like amyloidosis and sarcoidosis, have symptoms similar to TB too. And often it is too before the correct diagnosis happens," says Dr Kedawat.
ay TB, and the first thing that might strike you is a cloudy chest X- ray. But there are several other forms of TB which affect other organs of the body like that of skin, intenstinal, lymph nodemusculoskeletal, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, skin, pericardial, among others.
Apart from systemic policy changes, there is much that can be achieved by individual efforts, which are as simple as sticking to your medicine regimen beginning with the first line of treatment.
" It is important to follow proper guidelines, avoid using anti TB medication for any other purpose other then TB, stick to total duration of care as treatment being of longer duration there is the tendency to default which leads to treatment failure and building up of resistance," says Dr Mansoor.
While most of us are exposed to TB during our lifetime, those with low immunity are more likely to contract it. So one of the ways to keep it off you and combat this condition when it strikes, is to build your immunity; gradually and naturally.